What are the venipuncture sites?

What are the venipuncture sites?

Recommended: cephalic, basilic, median, forearm and venous plexus on the back of the hand; distal to proximal direction; Choose the catheter appropriate to the caliber of the peripheral vessel; Attach the tourniquet above the chosen location (do not place it over the joints);

Which areas should not be Punctured?

In children under one year of age, the following areas should not be punctured : Posterior curvature of the heel; • Central area of ​​the foot ( arch area ); • Distal phalanx of the fingers; See notes 1 and 2; • Earlobes. Note 1: The transcutaneous puncture should not be deeper than 2.0 mm.

What are the precautions during collection?

The patient must follow the laboratory’s instructions:

  1. Fasting for 3 hours;
  2. Sexual break for 2 days before taking the exam;
  3. Do not ride a bicycle or practice horse riding in the 2 days before the exam;
  4. After undergoing some tests, the patient has to wait a longer period of time to have blood collected .

How to find a difficult vein?

Ideally, it should be positioned 10 cm above the vein that will be punctured. Before puncturing the area, do not apply light slaps, as this may cause bruising. The ideal is to use your index finger to look for the vein .

What is the preferred location for blood collection for blood gas analysis?

Puncture sites in order of preference : radial, brachial and femoral arteries. Punctures in the femoral arteries should be avoided due to a higher incidence of complications (abscesses, arteriovenous fistulas, etc.); In cases of hematoma, the evolution should be observed and a compressive dressing should be maintained, if necessary.

How do I collect blood for arterial blood gas analysis?

Arterial blood gas analysis is performed by puncture of the artery in the patient’s arm or leg. However, the radial artery has priority for blood collection . In this case, it is necessary to puncture the skin and the wall of the artery following its path.

How to collect arterial and venous blood gases?

Arterial blood gas collection is performed through an arterial puncture , normally in the radial, brachial or femoral artery. It is an extremely aseptic technique, in order to prevent infections, and must be performed by a trained professional.

Where to take an arterial blood gas test?

A blood sample from an artery is usually taken from the inside of the wrist (radial artery), but can also be taken from an artery in the groin (femoral artery) or from the inside of the arm above the crease of the elbow ( brachial artery).

What is the cost of the arterial blood gas test?

Normal arterial blood gas test values ​​are : pH: 7.

What is the price of the arterial blood gas test?

Price . The arterial blood gas test , on average, costs from R$10.00 and can reach R$60.00, depending on the laboratory. As there is no need for special equipment and can be performed in most laboratories, arterial blood gas analysis is normally covered by health plans.

When is arterial blood gas analysis indicated?

– Measure pH in the blood of people who have heart failure, kidney failure, uncontrolled diabetes, sleep disorders and serious infections, or after a drug overdose. – An arterial blood gas analysis is often done on patients who are in the hospital with a serious illness or are undergoing surgery.

What type of patient can the technician collect arterial blood gas analysis from?

competence to collect material for Arterial Blood Gas Analysis . conclusion: (…) the specially trained and technically qualified Nurse will be able to perform percutaneous puncture or perform arterial access procedures (if applicable) to obtain a blood sample for blood gas analysis.

What is the purpose of arterial blood gas analysis?

Arterial blood gas analysis is a blood test that is collected from an artery, with the aim of evaluating the gases present in the blood, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, as well as their distribution, pH and acid-base balance.

How is the arterial blood gas test performed?

Blood gas analysis is a blood test carried out by collecting arterial blood, with the aim of analyzing the gases present, their distribution, the pH and the acid-base balance in the blood.

How do you know if your blood gas analysis is compensated or decompensated?

Therefore, if blood gas analysis shows partial compensation we must review the three steps: First: assess the pH and check for acidosis or alkalosis. Second: evaluate PCO2. As we have seen, in a decompensated situation pH and PCO2 move in opposite directions, if the change is primarily respiratory.

Who should collect blood gases?

1st Within the scope of the Nursing team, arterial puncture both for the purposes of blood gas analysis and for monitoring invasive blood pressure is a procedure exclusive to the Nurse, in compliance with the legal provisions of the profession.

What does pO2 mean on arterial blood gas analysis?

pO2 (partial pressure of oxygen) 80 to 100 mmHg. pCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide) 35 to 45 mmHg. HCO3 (necessary for blood acid-base balance) 22 to 26 mEq/L. SaO2 Oxygen saturation ( arterial ) greater than 95%

What can alkalosis cause?

What is metabolic alkalosis and what can cause it . Metabolic alkalosis occurs when the pH of the blood becomes more basic than it should be, that is, when it is above 7.45, which arises in situations such as vomiting, use of diuretics or excessive consumption of bicarbonate, for example.

What are the symptoms of alkalosis?

Among the general symptoms of alkalosis we find:

  • Nausea.
  • Feeling of numbness.
  • Prolonged muscle spasms.
  • Tremor in the hands.
  • Muscular contraction.

What are the types of alkalosis?

Types . There are basically two types of alkalosis : Respiratory alkalosis . Metabolic alkalosis .

What is an alkalosis?

Alkalosis is excessive blood alkalinity caused by an excess of bicarbonate in the blood or loss of acid in the blood ( metabolic alkalosis ) or by a low level of carbon dioxide in the blood resulting from rapid or deep breathing ( respiratory alkalosis ).

What is respiratory alkalosis?

Respiratory alkalosis is the primary decrease in partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) with or without compensatory reduction in bicarbonate (HCO3−); pH may be high or close to normal. The cause is increased respiratory rate and/or volume (hyperventilation). Respiratory alkalosis can be acute or chronic.

What is the treatment for respiratory alkalosis?

Treatment depends on the cause of respiratory alkalosis . If a person has rapid breathing caused by anxiety, treatment is based on decreasing their respiratory rate , reducing their anxiety and increasing the amount of carbon dioxide inspired.

What causes hyperventilation?

The most common cause of hyperventilation is anxiety, but physical exercise, fevers and respiratory illnesses also often lead to this state. Hyperventilation may be associated with panic attacks and other anxiety disorders, according to the ICD-10 classification .

What happens when po2 is low?

Common causes of low PCO2 are: primary respiratory alkalosis, asthma, heart failure and pneumonia and for elevated PCO2 are: acidosis, primary respiratory, chronic lung disease and CNS depression. It is also called acidemia.

What is the normal value of PaO2 and SaO2?

Arterial blood gas values ​​that reflect oxygenation include arterial plasma oxygen partial pressure ( PaO2 ) and arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation ( SaO2 ). It is the partial pressure of O2 dissolved in arterial blood. Normal PaO2 ( or pO2 ) is 80 to 100 mmHg at sea level.

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